This page is dedicated to endnotes. You will find additionaly information that was deemed too lengthy to include in a post. Entries are in alphabetical order; please use CTRL+F to find what led you here.

‘A Room of One’s Own’, Virginia Woolf

An essay by Virginia Woolf based upon two papers read to the Arts Society at Newnham College and the Odtaa at Girton College, Cambridge, in October 1928. It was published in 1929.

It has become a feminist classic. Woolf begins by announcing her basic thesis: that ‘a woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction’. In answer to the rhetorical question about why there were no famous Elizabethan women writers, Woolf employs the conceit that Shakespeare had a talented sister called Judith who was driven to suicide by artistic frustration. She then examines the educational, social, and financial disadvantages and prejudices which have thwarted women writers throughout (English) history. Special tribute is paid to Aphra BehnDorothy OsborneJane Austen and the Brontë-sisters.

In the last chapter Woolf discusses ‘the androgynous mind’ (‘If one is a man, still the woman part of the brain must have effect; and a woman also must have intercourse with the man in her’) and deplores the male-centred perspective of ‘some of the finest works of our greatest living writers’ which makes them incomprehensible to women. The essay concludes by exhorting women to struggle to help realize a world in which ‘the dead poet who was Shakespeare’s sister will put on the body which she has so often laid down’.

'A Room of One's Own', The Cambridge Guide to Literature in English ed. by Ian Ousby, 2nd edn. (UK: Cambridge UP, 2000) <http://proxy.bnl.lu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fsearch.credoreference.com%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fcupliteng%2Froom_of_one_s_own_a%2F0%3FinstitutionId%3D219> [accessed 24 September 2019].

‘Cis Moll’, ‘Michel Angelo’ and ‘Olaf von Geldern’ by P. Slaveikov

‘Cis Moll’ examines the character of Beth Hoven (not to be confused with Beethoven), a deaf musician who has a spiritual monologue debating his gift and place in the world.

‘Michel Angelo’ is in concept similar, however it studies Michel Angelo (not to be confused with Michelangelo) who is sculpting a statue but lacks the inspiration to finish his work.

‘Olaf von Geldern’ was not on the syllabus. The teacher recommended I read it while waiting for everyone else to finish another task. I remember simply saying that it was the most relatable thing I had ever read. It was in essence about a younger who found it difficult to identify with anybody else as they were not troubled by the same (pardon the lay expression) writer problems.

Como agua para chocolate // Like Water for Chocolate

Laura Esquivel’s Como agua para chocolate (Like Water for Chocolate) (1989) was an international phenomenon as both novel and film, and forms part of a best-selling boom in Latin American women’s writing (see best-sellers). This woman-centred narrative focuses on three generations of land-holding female members of the de la Garza family, who reside on the Mexican side of the USA-Mexico border. A core section of this historical melodrama, largely set between 1895 and 1934, focuses on the period of the 1910 Mexican Revolution, the event that marks Mexico’s entry into modernity. Unlike the traditional novel of the Mexican Revolution, in Como agua para chocolate the Revolution is of secondary importance; the focus is on how Tita breaks from the family tradition that the youngest daughter is obligated to remain unwed in order to care for her mother during her old age. The privileged site for social change in this film is within the domestic sphere. Tita’s role as caretaker and carrier of tradition proves to be a vantage point in her quest to wed Pedro who, given Tita’s unavailability, marries her older sister to be near his loved one. With the kitchen as centre of Tita’s universe, her culinary skills give her power over family members and friends. Through food Esquivel employs magical realist techniques (see magical realism) to underscore the ritual function of food as a spiritual code for communication. Mexico, in this narrative, is associated with exotic and sensual food, given the narrative’s structural organization around the cookbook genre; each chapter is preceded by a recipe. National gastronomic delights stand in for eminently consumable and exportable images of Mexico. The spatial focus on the kitchen underscores the maternal-feminine space par excellence. The Revolution provides the moment for representing shifting gender power relations and generational tensions. As of 1992, Esquivel’s novel had been translated into over twenty-four languages. Its US publisher, Doubleday, issued the novel in both Spanish and English editions, both of which sold phenomenally well. Like Water for Chocolate was in the top ten New York Times best-seller list for thirty-nine weeks, making it the only Latin American novel to have remained among the top ten best-sellers for such an uninterrupted period.

Sergio de la Mora, 'Como Agua Para Chocolate', in Encyclopedia of Latin American and Carribean Literature, 1900-2003 (London: Routledge, 2004) <http://proxy.bnl.lu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fsearch.credoreference.com%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Froutlaclit%2Fcomo_agua_para_chocolate%2F0%3FinstitutionId%3D219> [accessed 04 April 2019].

Ezra Pound, His Use of the Haiku Form, and the Modernist Movement of Imagism

At its outset, Imagism was associated with a group of international poets that included—in addition to Pound, Aldington, and H.D.—T. E. Hulme, Amy Lowell, William Carlos Williams, F. S. Flint, and J. G. Fletcher. Imagists reaffirmed the expressionist trends toward the integration of the concrete image and the abstract conception of reality, drawing equally upon symbolist and postimpressionist aesthetics. For this reason Imagism is associated with many artistic disciplines, although the movement was primarily literary. In addition to its kinship with Oriental painting—for which Pound professed an absolute passion—Imagism took some cues from modernist philosophies of classicism as a counter to the perceived decadence of nineteenth-century humanism and romanticism.

Hulme, one of the movement’s English founders, expressed his desire for a new poetry characterized by dryness and intelligence, what he called the “hard, dry image.” His poem “Above the Dock” is commonly discussed as a signal example. Pound’s own poems, often based on the seventeen-syllable Japanese haiku form, could be equally rigid and terse, even in their shortest construction. Thus his most famous poem, “In a Station of the Metro,” was originally composed of thirty-two lines but was reduced to a famous couplet—“The apparition of these faces in the crowd;/Petals on a wet, black bough”—attempting to capture for eternity the brief, snapshot image of his fellow metro passengers. Thus the Imagist aesthetic was meant to reveal the beauty of a single moment in time or space.

Y. Morato-Agrafojo, 'Imagism', in Britain and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History, ed. by W. Kaufman & H.S. Macpherson (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2005) <http://proxy.bnl.lu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fsearch.credoreference.com%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fabcbramrle%2Fimagism%2F0%3FinstitutionId%3D219> [accessed 15 March 2019]. 

Gerund vs. Present Participle

A part of a Latin verb with the value of a verbal noun, such as amandum (= loving); in English, a noun with the ending -ing formed from a verb and having some of the qualities of a verb, such as the possibility of governing an object, etc, and often preceded by a possessive (e.g. My leaving her was unwise). 

C. Shwarz, 'Gerund', in The Cambridge Dictionary, 13th edn. (London: Chambers Harrap, 2015) <http://proxy.bnl.lu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fsearch.credoreference.com%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fchambdict%2Fgerund%2F0%3FinstitutionId%3D219> [acceessed 12 April 2019].

A present participle is a participle expressing present action. It is formed by adding the suffix –ing to a verb. The present participle is used with the auxiliary verb be to form the progressive tenses, as in The cattle are feeding on the lush grass, and The musicians have been waiting for an hour to audition. The present participle also functions more generally as an adjective, as feeding in the noun phrase the feeding cattle.

'Present Participle', in The American Heritage Guide to Contemporary Usage and Style (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 2005) <http://proxy.bnl.lu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fsearch.credoreference.com%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fhmcontempusage%2Fpresent_participle%2F0%3FinstitutionId%3D219> [acceessed 12 April 2019]. 


In Japan from the thirteenth century onwards it was common for circles of poets to extemporise renga, sequences of linked stanzas often in celebration of the natural world. The first stanza of the sequence was the hokku, comprising seventeen syllables deployed in three groups: 5 – 7 – 5. Later the hokku broke away and became a free-standing form, and later still (towards the end of the nineteenth century) the form came to be called haiku. Along with brevity, its essence lay in its immediacy and resonance: the record of a moment of heightened perception, often implying a back-story but never spelling it out, presented in the present tense, steering clear of strong main verbs and making much of a marked pause at the end of the first or second line. Thus (to confect an example): ‘A sunburst through rain: / Bashō at the ancient shrine / penning a haiku.’ (Matsuo Bashō, 1644–94, was the form’s acknowledged master.)

 R. Savage, 'Haiku', in  The Edinburgh Dictionary of Modernism, ed. by   
V. Kolocotroni and O. Taxidou (Edinburg, UK: Edinburgh University Press, 2018) <http://proxy.bnl.lu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fsearch.credoreference.com%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fedinburghnko%2Fhaiku%2F0%3FinstitutionId%3D219> [accessed 15 March 2019].

IMPLICATURE (Gricean Maxims)

Grice’s theory is about contexts of utterance that involve a speaker, a speech act, which includes a sentence or other expressions, and a hearer. Such a context of utterance is one in which the speaker performs a speech act intending to have some communicative effect on the hearer. Grice’s theory introduces two major ideas about communicative, ‘conversational’ contexts of utterance. Roughly speaking, the first idea is that speech acts performed in conversational contexts of utterance are governed by certain principles and maxims of conversation; the second idea is that what is conveyed but not said is what follows from the speaker’s observing those maxims and what follows from the speaker’s seemingly flouting those maxims. It is clear that such ideas can serve in solving the delineation problem of what is conveyed but not said. It will become clear in the sequel that the same ideas are of much significance in an attempt to solve the derivation problem as well. […]

Quantity maxims:

  • (1) Make your contribution as informative as is required
    (for the current purposes of the exchange).
  • (2) Do not make your contribution more informative than is required.

Quality supermaxim:

  • Try to make your contribution one that is true.

Quality maxims:

  • (1) Do not say what you believe to be false.
  • (2) Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence.

Relation maxim:

  • Be relevant.

Manner supermaxim:

  • Be perspicuous.

Manner maxims:

  • (1) Avoid obscurity of expression.
  • (2) Avoid ambiguity.
  • (3) Be brief (avoid unnecessary prolixity).
  • (4) Be orderly.

 R. Kasher, 'Implicature', in  Key Ideas in linguistics and the Philosophy of Language, ed. by   
S. Chapman and C. Routledge (Edinburg, UK: Edinburgh University Press, 2009) <http://proxy.bnl.lu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fsearch.credoreference.com%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fedinburghnko%2Fhaiku%2F0%3FinstitutionId%3D219> [accessed 22 January 2021].


The process by which people are made to seem mildly or radically different. Through othering strategies, people are positioned as an out-group – as ‘an Other’. However, given that the word ‘Other is an elliptical pronoun… that can refer to practically anything, depending on the context or situation’ (Riggins, 1997: 4), the term requires further definition.

Self-identity is the result of a dialogue between self and other: I define what I am in contrast to what I am not; equally, we define others in terms which reflect their difference from us. However, personal identity is a fluid rather than a stable state in which the self draws on multiple identities – for example, son, husband, graduate, Socialist, Englishman, European, etc. – any of which may be emphasized at a given point at the expense of others. On this point, Hall (1994: 392) has argued that identity should be thought of ‘as a “production” which is never complete, always in process, and always constituted within, not outside representation’. This process of identity places the self within different in-groups at different times. Logically therefore, people considered, and represented, as part of the in-group – as part of ‘We’ – in certain contexts can be considered and represented as different, as Other, in other contexts. This is Othering: the process by which individuals or groups, who in certain contexts or viewed from certain (political, ideological) perspectives are, or could be, positioned as part of the group ‘We’, are rhetorically distanced from Us and (re)presented as ‘Other’.

Implicit in Othering is a hierarchy in which They are thought, and represented, as being subordinate and/or inferior. While it may not be entirely accurate to conclude that Othering necessarily ‘dehumanises and diminishes groups, making it easier for victimisers to seize land, exploit labour and exert control’ (Riggins, 1997: 9), hierarchies are organizing metaphors from which discourse can easily slip into discrimination and domination along sexist, anti-Semitic, racist or otherwise ethnicist lines.

John Richardson, 'Othering', in Key Concepts in Journalism Studies (London: Sage UK, 2005) <http://proxy.bnl.lu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fsearch.credoreference.com%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fsageukjour%2Fothering%2F0%3FinstitutionId%3D219> [accessed 10 June 2019].

Pencho P. Slaveikov

The realistic model of literature slowly began to crumble at [the end of the XIX century]. Authors sought to reopen a multisemantic fan behind the poetic word (polysemy as opposed to monosemanticism). Words were given an unusual set of references or paralleled by sudden rhymes that displaced their meaning: unexpected harmony was sought in distant dissonances. E.g., the word swan had a whole “fan of meanings,” such as the poet’s soul, his striving for beauty, his lover, and so forth. The leading figure in this process was Vazov’s lifelong rival Pencho Slaveikov (1866-1912), a humanitarian, poet, and philosopher educated in Germany.

Slaveikov became the first modernist in Bulgarian literature and the first poet directly connected with international movements. He went his own way, focusing more on great aesthetic questions than on contemp. literary life. A document in the Nobel Prize Committee archive states that Slaveikov was a Nobel Prize nominee in 1912. He died before the committee meeting, however. Slaveikov inherited a rich collection of folkloric work from his father, Petko Slaveikov, and masterfully saturated his own songs with folk motifs. In the epic poems Ralitsa, Boiko, and Kurvava pesen (Song of Blood), he tried to place specific folk sounds within a larger European frame.

I. Mladenov, 'Poetry of Bulgaria', in The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, ed. by R. Green et al., 4th edn. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012) <http://proxy.bnl.lu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fsearch.credoreference.com%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fprpoetry%2Fbulgaria_poetry_of%2F0%3FinstitutionId%3D219> [accessed 2 March 2019].    

prosody (n.)

A term used in SUPRASEGMENTAL PHONETICS and PHONOLOGY to refer collectively to variations in PITCHLOUDNESSTEMPO and RHYTHM. Sometimes it is used loosely as a synonym for ‘suprasegmental’, but in a narrower sense it refers only to the above variables, the remaining suprasegmental features being labelled PARALINGUISTIC. The narrow sense is close to the traditional use of the term ‘prosody’, where it referred to the characteristics and analyses of verse structure. The term prosodic features is preferred in LINGUISTICS, partly to enable a distinction to be drawn with the traditional use. In some approaches to phonology, the term sentence prosody is used to group together intonation, phrasal rhythmic patterning and more general features of prosodic phrasing. The above use treats ‘prosody’ as a mass noun.

David Crystal, 'Prosody', in Language Library : A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, 6th edn. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2008) <http://proxy.bnl.lu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fsearch.credoreference.com%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fbkdictling%2Fprosody%2F0%3FinstitutionId%3D219> [accessed 05 April 2019].

Renaissance (French: “Rebirth”) [The Early Modern Times]

Late medieval cultural movement in Europe. The Renaissance brought renewed interest in Classical learning and values to Italy and subsequently the rest of western and central Europe from the late 13th to the early 17th century. Attracted by the values and rhetorical eloquence of ancient writers, figures such as PetrarchGiovanni Boccaccio, and Lorenzo Valla rejected medieval Scholasticism in favour of human-centred forms of philosophy and literature. In northern Europe, Desiderius Erasmus cultivated Christian humanism, and writers such as Franƈois Rabelais and William Shakespeare produced works that emphasized the intricacies of human character. Inspired by ancient Greece and Rome, Renaissance painters and sculptors took the visible world for their subject and practiced according to mathematical principles of balance, harmony, and perspective. The new aesthetic found expression in the works of Italian artists such as Leonardo da VinciSandro BotticelliRaphaelTitian, and Michelangelo, and the Italian city of Florence became the centre of Renaissance art. The term has also been applied to cultural revivals in England in the 8th century, the Frankish kingdoms in the 9th century, and Europe in the 12th century. See also Renaissance architecture.

'Renaissance', in Britannica Concise Encyclopedia (Britannica Digital Learning, 2017) <http://proxy.bnl.lu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fsearch.credoreference.com%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Febconcise%2Frenaissance%2F0%3FinstitutionId%3D219> [accessed 30 May 2019]

SHELLEY, PERCY BYSSHE (1792-1822) English poet

Along with Lord Byron and John Keats, Percy Bysshe Shelley belongs to the second generation of English Romantic poets. Shelley’s literary reputation has undergone significant fluctuations: he was considered a major poet in the nineteenth century, but in the early twentieth century his reputation was seriously attacked, most notably by T. S. Eliot.


If one looks at Shelley in the context of Romantic writing, […] his status as a major Romantic poet is difficult to deny. What is striking about Shelley is that he is both the most subjective and political of the Romantic poets. Romantic poetry in general is characterized by a tension between the subjectivity or imagination of the poet and the material world which is a resistant force. In Shelley subjectivity or imagination makes its strongest effort to overcome the recalcitrance of the material world and impose its vision on it. As he puts it in his Defence of Poetry (1821), the poet “not only beholds intensely the present as it is, and discovers those laws according to which present things are ordered, but he beholds the future in the present, and his thoughts are the germs of the flower and the fruit of latest time.”

K.M. Newton, 'Shelley, Percy Bysshe 1792-1822', in Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, 1760-1850 (London: Routledge, 2003) <http://proxy.bnl.lu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fsearch.credoreference.com%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Froutromanticera%2Fshelley_percy_bysshe_1792_1822%2F0%3FinstitutionId%3D219> [accessed 12 May 2019]

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